CYWILIZACJA-KOMUNIZMU-azymut-150x150

Cywilizacja komunizmu

In Recenzje by Luiza Stachura48 Comments

Prawie ćwierć wieku po transformacji ustrojowej w Polsce Wydawnictwo MG przypomina o niebezpiecznym bakcylu komunizmu. Oto przewodnik po meandrach socjalizmu w praktyce, błyskotliwie napisany przez pisarza, publicystę i popularyzatora jazzu – Leopolda Tyrmanda.

(Nie)wolność dla obywateli

Tytułowe sformułowanie "cywilizacja komunizmu" to – co jasne – oksymoron. Tyrmand celowo i przewrotnie wybiera identyfikowane z postępem oraz udoskonaleniem społecznym słowo "cywilizacja" w odniesieniu do praktyk komunistów. Komunizm – napisze pod koniec – w ciągu 50 lat stworzył własną cywilizację, w której wegetują jeszcze relikty ogólnoeuropejskiego dorobku, lecz w której najbardziej podstawowe pojęcia i kryteria tego, co dobre i złe, mądre i głupie, od dawna wyrzucone zostały na śmietnik.

Z książki wyłania się obraz paradoksalnej i antynomicznej przestrzeni, gdzie wszystko zależne jest od bieżącej optyki aparatu władzy. Człowieczeństwo stopniowo zostaje zdegradowane aż do wyzwolenia najniższych instynktów; ludzie powoli, prawie niezauważalnie podlegają procesowi reifikacji. Ich (nie)życie jest zaprogramowane od pierwszych do ostatnich chwil. Każdy gest i słowo – ściśle kontrolowane. Niczym marionetki, uwięzione na niewidocznych sznurkach zależności, wpadają w matnię, czarną dziurę kłamstwa zbiorowego. Rozbestwione kłamstwo – podkreśla Tyrmand – jakim komunizm wypełnił swój świat i zainfekował nasz świat, anuluje wszelkie normy rozsądku. (…) Poprzez kłamstwo komunizm staje się wszechobecny, przeobraża się we właściwość bytu, partnera istnienia, element panteistyczny, z którym nawet ścinanie paznokci ma coś wspólnego. Groza kryjąca się w tym staniem rzeczy jest nie do pojęcia dla ludzie demokratycznego Zachodu. I – dodalibyśmy – pokoleń, które nie doświadczyły takiego zniewolenia.

Truskawka dla państwa

Książka Tyrmanda składa się trzydziestu sześciu części – obrazków z codzienności w kraju komunistycznym – oraz krótkiego wstępu, w którym autor wyjaśnia, że całość nie rości sobie praw do naukowości, nie jest przykładem dziennikarsko-publicystycznej twórczości, ale pamfletem na "najgorszą plagę, jaka spotkała ludzkość".

Literackość książki Tyrmanda wynika z barwności stylu (między innymi ekspresyjnego języka czy licznych anegdot) i sposobu przedstawienia tematu. Blisko mu bowiem do antyutopijnego eseju, chociaż czytelnik, który nie ma najmniejszego pojęcia o praktycznej stronie komunizmu, odczytywać będzie Cywilizację komunizmu jako literacką impresję na temat totalitaryzmu. Bo czyż stwierdzenie, że w komunizmie malarz, który chce namalować obraz, musi wziąć pod uwagę, czym jego obraz będzie dla partii, rządu, państwa, związków zawodowych, dzieci szkolnych, nadchodzącej rocznicy narodzin Lenina oraz ministerstwa przemysłu – o ile chce namalować hutę – zaś ministerstwa rolnictwa, o ile ma zamiar namalować truskawkę nie brzmi jak ponury żart? W kolejnych odsłonach książki Tyrmand śledzi wpływ doktryn państwa na rozwój osobowości i tożsamości obywatela od jego poczęcia aż do śmierci, wskazuje na absurdy i mechanizmy obronne wytwarzane instynktownie przez ludzi, nie cofa się przed odważnym zestawieniem komunizmu i hitleryzmu, w efekcie zaś kreśli portret jednostki i zbiorowości zniewolonych oparami komunizmu.

Gorzko-ironiczna Cywilizacja komunizmu to ostrzeżenie przed naiwnością wynikającą z niewiedzy i lekceważącego stosunku do rzeczywistości. Znakomicie i ze swadą napisana rzecz o nierzeczywistości, w której nadal (nie) żyje wielu ludzi na świecie.

CYWILIZACJA-KOMUNIZMU-azymut

Leopold Tyrmand
Cywilizacja komunizmu
Wydawnictwo MG, 2013

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