LegendaOSigurdzie

Nie tylko Śródziemie

In Artykuły by Agata Kozłowska51 Comments

J. R. R. Tolkien kojarzy się głównie z fantastycznym światem Śródziemia. Władcę Pierścieni i Hobbita znają miliony (miliardy?) ludzi, a w rozprzestrzenieniu wiedzy pomagały niewątpliwie adaptacje Petera Jacksona. Silmarillion, Niedokończone opowieści czy Dzieci Húrina są już mniej rozpoznawalne. Jednak Tolkien nie spędził całego życia, myśląc i pisząc o Śródziemiu. Przyjrzyjmy się kilku innym wybranym utworom Profesora.

Poezja aliteracyjna

Niedokończony poemat o królu Arturze potwierdził fascynację Tolkiena poezją aliteracyjną, czyli wywodzącą się ze starożytności, dla wielu niezrozumiałą formą angielskiego wiersza. Dzięki ostatnio wydanej pozycji Upadek króla Artura i zamieszczonym w niej obszernym komentarzom Christophera, syna Profesora, możemy poznać te fragmenty i osadzić je w tradycji legend arturiańskich. Christopher pisze o dawnych poematach, jak teksty sir Thomasa Malory’ego czy Geoffreya z Monmouth, znanych jego ojcu i wykorzystanych przy tworzeniu Upadku.

Dla miłośników historii o królu Arturze jest to świetna pozycja, niemniej to nie jedyny przykład poezji aliteracyjnej w dorobku Tolkiena. Profesor napisał jeszcze Powrót Beorhtnotha do domu – dialog dramatyczny wywodzący się ze staroangielskiego poematu Bitwa pod Maldon, a także staronordyjskie poematy Nowa pieśń o Völsungach oraz Nowa pieśń o Gudrun. Tolkien połączył też średniowieczne aliteracyjne metrum i współczesną angielszczyznę w Panu Gawenie i Zielonym Rycerzu.

LegendaOSigurdzie

Dla zainteresowanych: dwa staronordyjskie poematy można znaleźć w tej książce.

Pisanie o tworzeniu

Badacze fantastyki (a także niektórzy jej miłośnicy) z pewnością mieli kiedyś w rękach dość niepozorne dzieło jakim jest Drzewo i liść oraz Mythopoeia. Znajduje się w nim esej O baśniach, opowiadanie Liść, dzieło Niggle’a i poemat Mythopoeia. Podczas pisania pracy z fantastyki przeczytałam wiele opracowań tego gatunku i muszę przyznać, że niewiele z nich nie odnosiło się w mniejszy lub większy sposób do eseju O baśniach. Tolkien przedstawia w nim, jak rozumie baśnie, w jaki sposób powstają, czym są dla dzieci i co mogą dać dorosłym. Dobre historie powinny wzbudzać tęsknotę drzemiącą w człowieku. To fundament prawdziwej fantastyki.

Liść, dzieło Niggle’a przedstawia proces twórczy na przykładzie Niggle’a, najbardziej kochającego malować liście i drzewa. Natomiast Mythopoeia udowadnia, że mity są czymś więcej, niż nic niewartymi kłamstwami. Każdy, kto uwielbia fantastykę, a nawet myśli o pisaniu własnych utworów, powinien zacząć od tego dzieła. W końcu Tolkien wie, co mówi.

leaf_by_niggle_by_89ravenclaw-d5z4zm9

Wykład o Beowulfie to główny esej zawarty w zbiorze Potwory i krytycy. Znajdują się w nim również wspomniane wcześniej O baśniach, omówienie Pana Gawena i Zielonego Rycerza, eseje o językoznawstwie, a także coś, co pozwoli czytelnikom wyobrazić sobie Oxford kilkadziesiąt lat temu.

Tolkien

Twórczość akademicka

O zdolnościach językowych Tolkiena wie większość jego czytelników (i nie-czytelników zapewne też). Nie dość, że sam znał ponad 30 języków, to tworzył własne. Był współtwórcą Oxford English Dictionary. Jednak już niewielu miłośników Śródziemia zapoznało się z opublikowanym zbiorem esejów o tytule Potwory i krytycy. Słyszeliście o poemacie Beowulf? Pewnie tak, nawet filmów na ten temat powstało kilka.

Otóż na pewnym wykładzie Profesor postanowił zabrać głos w sprawie ówczesnego odczytywania Beowulfa, a na poezji staroangielskiej, jak przedstawiłam na początku, niewątpliwie się znał. Odezwał się w Tolkienie duch twórcy, broniącego innego twórcy: poemat nie jest jedynie źródłem historycznym, jak do tej pory go traktowano, ale także dziełem literackim i należy te dwie jego strony łączyć, a nie rozdzielać.

To tylko kilka przykładów działalności Tolkiena spoza obszaru Śródziemia, choć zawsze to ze Śródziemiem będzie kojarzony. Dajcie znać, co Wy czytaliście z dzieł Profesora!

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